Diabetes in Women: Unique Symptoms, Risks & Pregnancy Implications

Diabetes in Women: Important tips for female diabetes patients

There are some differences between men and women due to hormonal differences in diabetes.

Keep in mind that type 2 diabetes is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease.  Its signs, symptoms and disease progression are significantly different in women than in men.

Image of a female patient discussing about diabetes in women with a doctor.

Some of the signs and symptoms are quite different in women with diabetes:

There are four types of diabetes symptoms and complications that are quite different in women:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Most of the time, PCOS causes diabetes in women, which makes them more susceptible to insulin resistance.  In fact, it is also the leading cause of obesity and infertility in women.  Symptoms include hair loss, acne, and excessive body hair growth.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Urinary tract infections are more severe in women with diabetes due to small ureters and high blood sugar.  One of the most common causes of diabetes is that the sugar in the urine is a breeding ground for bacterial growth.

Vaginal or Oral Yeast Infections: Women with diabetes, especially those with uncontrolled sugar levels, are more prone to yeast or fungal infections of the vagina.  Symptoms of yeast infection in the vagina may include itching, pain, and uncomfortable discharge from the vagina.

Decreased vaginal dryness or sexual arousal: This can lead to sexual problems.  In some unfortunate cases, women with diabetes may develop sexual dysfunction, circulatory problems, and neurological disorders (diabetic neuropathy).

Knowledge about diabetes in pregnancy(Gestational Diabetes):

There are three types of Gestational Diabetes.

One: The patient may already have diabetes and is insulin dependent.  That means he has to be treated with insulin.  His body’s pancreas may not produce insulin.  Insulin produced in the pancreas helps to keep blood sugar metabolism normal.

Two: These patients are usually obese.  They may make insulin through the pancreas.  But it does not meet the demand for insulin in the blood.  That means they have an excess of sugar in the blood.

Three: Usually a woman does not have diabetes.  But there is diabetes during pregnancy.  It is called gestational diabetes.  It does not stay in the delivery hall.  However, there is a risk of diabetes during the next pregnancy.  In addition, if he does not control his diet, does not change his lifestyle, then he is at risk of developing diabetes in the future.

Measurements of gestational diabetes include pre-meal blood sugar levels (FBS)> 90 mg% and postoperative (post-meal or PPBS) blood sugar levels above 140 mg / dL.

Obese women, women with a family history of diabetes, and women who have had gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies are at higher risk of developing gestational diabetes than other women.  In fact, women who have had gestational diabetes in the past are 20% to 50% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the future.

Every pregnant woman is strongly advised to get her oral glucose tolerance tested for gestational diabetes.  Proper diet, exercise and medication can help control gestational diabetes.

Pregnancy and diabetes.

If a woman has diabetes, she must take special care during pregnancy.  The first thing she should do is to control her blood sugar level before conceiving, so that her child does not have any developmental problems.  In addition, she should follow a proper diet and exercise routine to control her blood sugar levels throughout her pregnancy.  It is also important to see a diabetes specialist regularly to take insulin or tablets to keep sugar levels within range.

If a pregnant woman has high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, her baby may have the following problems:

  • Macrosomia: Babies with larger heads than the average size can be born
  • Overweight baby.
  • Babies with heart disease.
  • The child of a diabetic mother is also more likely to get diabetes in the future.  Not only that, women with gestational diabetes are more likely to have mental retardation later in life.
  • Sudden death of the baby before birth, or dead childbirth.

If the blood sugar level is not controlled, that is, if the pre-meal blood sugar level is more than 90 and the post-meal blood sugar level is more than 140, pregnancy can be equally affected by type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

What is the medical advice for gestational diabetes?

If you have the first two types of diabetes, then you should talk before pregnancy.  Diabetes should be controlled first and then pregnancy should be done in consultation with the doctor.  If the amount of diabetes is below 6 mmol/L, then the child can be accepted. If diabetes is out of control, the baby may be born abnormally. This will harm both the baby and the mother. Babies can be born a little older than normal. The amount of sugar in the baby’s body may be higher after birth.  Therefore, to prevent these problems, you need to take the advice of a doctor from the very beginning.

Women with type 1 diabetes have a higher mortality rate and double the risk of complications:

However diabetes can strike anyone, regardless of age, gender, race or lifestyle;  Studies have shown that there is a gender difference in the mortality rate of type 1 diabetes.

Twenty-six studies have shown that women with type 1 diabetes have a 40% higher risk of all-cause death.  Not only that, but in the case of blood transfusions that are both fatal and non-fatal, their chances are almost double that of men with type 1 diabetes.

In fact, according to another study, there has been no improvement in the mortality rate of women with diabetes, while the mortality rate of men has decreased significantly in the last few years.  Studies have shown that the main causes of gender differences in diabetes are:

  • Diabetes and its complications are more difficult to diagnose in women than in men.
  • The way hormones and inflammation work in women is completely different.
  • There is a tendency for women to have some distinct and unique symptoms of diabetes.
  • Even women’s heart disease can be different than men’s.
  • Men are at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease than women.

Women have a higher mortality rate and are twice as likely as men to have physical complications due to high levels of body fat.  “Some of the reasons why women are at risk of harm are neglect of their health, poor diet and taking drugs without any lifestyle changes.”

Understanding the nuanced impact of diabetes on women is pivotal for comprehensive healthcare. The distinct symptoms, heightened risks during pregnancy, and specific complications underscore the importance of tailored approaches to diagnosis, management, and care for female patients with diabetes. By recognizing these differences and advocating for specialized attention, we empower women to navigate their diabetes journey with informed choices, proactive measures, and improved overall well-being. Let’s continue advancing research and healthcare practices to ensure every woman receives the support and targeted care needed to thrive while managing diabetes.


Are the symptoms of diabetes different in women compared to men?

Yes, the symptoms of diabetes can be similar in both men and women, but there can be some differences or variations in how they manifest. Both genders may experience common symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow wound healing. However, women might also encounter specific signs related to diabetes, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), yeast infections, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Hormonal fluctuations in women can sometimes mask or exacerbate diabetes symptoms, making diagnosis a bit more complex. It’s essential for both men and women to be aware of these potential differences and seek medical advice if they notice any unusual changes in their health.

What is gestational diabetes, and how does it affect women?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who didn’t previously have diabetes. It occurs when the body can’t produce enough insulin to meet the increased needs during pregnancy, leading to high blood sugar levels. This condition typically manifests around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy.

It affects women by potentially causing complications for both the mother and the baby. For the mother, gestational diabetes increases the risk of high blood pressure, preeclampsia, and the need for a cesarean section. It also raises the chances of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

For the baby, gestational diabetes can lead to excessive birth weight, which might require a cesarean delivery. These babies might also experience low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) after birth and have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.

Managing gestational diabetes involves monitoring blood sugar levels, following a healthy eating plan, regular physical activity, and in some cases, insulin therapy. With proper management and care, many women with gestational diabetes can have a healthy pregnancy and baby. Regular check-ups and working closely with healthcare providers are crucial to manage this condition effectively.

Are there specific risks for women with diabetes during pregnancy?

Absolutely, women with diabetes face specific risks during pregnancy, including:

  • Gestational diabetes: Women without diabetes prior to pregnancy can develop gestational diabetes, which can pose risks to both mother and baby.
  • Increased risk of birth defects: Poorly controlled blood sugar levels during the first few weeks of pregnancy can increase the risk of birth defects in the baby.
  • Preeclampsia: Women with diabetes have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure during pregnancy, leading to preeclampsia, which can be dangerous for both mother and baby.
  • Macrosomia: This condition occurs when a baby is significantly larger than average, increasing the risk of birth injuries during delivery.
  • Hypoglycemia in the baby: Babies born to mothers with diabetes might experience low blood sugar levels after birth, requiring careful monitoring and management.
  • Premature birth: Women with diabetes have a higher chance of giving birth prematurely, which can lead to various health issues for the baby.

Managing diabetes before and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce these risks. Regular monitoring, following a healthy diet, exercising, and maintaining good blood sugar control are essential steps to promote a healthier pregnancy for both the mother and the baby. Working closely with healthcare providers to manage diabetes is key to minimizing these risks.

How does diabetes impact women’s long-term health?

Diabetes can have significant long-term impacts on women’s health. Some of these effects include:

  • Heart disease: Women with diabetes have a higher risk of heart disease compared to women without diabetes. It increases the likelihood of heart attacks, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.
  • Kidney disease: Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. Women with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic nephropathy, which can progress to kidney failure or necessitate dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy): Long-term diabetes can cause nerve damage, leading to issues such as pain, tingling, or loss of sensation, particularly in the feet and hands.
  • Eye complications: Diabetes can cause diabetic retinopathy, leading to vision problems and even blindness if left untreated.
  • Reproductive health issues: Women with diabetes might experience difficulties with fertility, increased risk of miscarriage, and complications during pregnancy, including gestational diabetes.
  • Infections: Diabetes can weaken the immune system, making women more susceptible to infections, particularly urinary tract infections (UTIs) and vaginal yeast infections.
  • Mental health: There’s a higher risk of depression and anxiety among women with diabetes, possibly due to the stress of managing the condition and its long-term effects.

Managing diabetes through healthy lifestyle choices, medication adherence, regular medical check-ups, and maintaining good blood sugar control can significantly reduce the risk of these long-term complications. It’s crucial for women with diabetes to work closely with healthcare providers to mitigate these potential health issues and maintain overall well-being.

Can diabetes in women be prevented or managed differently?
Preventing or managing diabetes in women involves several strategies:

  • Healthy lifestyle: A balanced diet, regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight can significantly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. High-fiber foods, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and limited sugar intake can help manage blood sugar levels.
  • Regular check-ups: Screening for diabetes is crucial, especially for women with risk factors like family history, obesity, or a history of gestational diabetes. Early detection allows for timely intervention and management.
  • Medication if needed: Some women may require medications to manage diabetes, including insulin or oral medications. It’s essential to follow the prescribed treatment plan and medication regimen as directed by healthcare providers.
  • Monitoring during pregnancy: For women who have had gestational diabetes, regular monitoring of blood sugar levels before and during subsequent pregnancies is essential. Managing blood sugar during pregnancy significantly reduces the risks to both the mother and the baby.
  • Hormonal management: Hormonal changes in women can affect blood sugar levels. Managing these fluctuations, especially during menstrual cycles or menopause, may require adjustments in medication or lifestyle.
  • Stress management: Stress can impact blood sugar levels. Techniques such as meditation, exercise, or therapy can help manage stress, thereby aiding in better diabetes management.
  • Education and support: Learning about diabetes and receiving support from healthcare professionals, support groups, or educational resources can empower women to manage the condition effectively.

Prevention and management strategies for diabetes in women often align with general recommendations for managing diabetes. A holistic approach that includes healthy lifestyle choices, regular monitoring, and medical guidance plays a pivotal role in preventing the onset of diabetes or managing it effectively.

The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and should not be considered as medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance and treatment regarding diabetes or any health-related concerns.

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